Franz Xaver Gruber (25 November 1787, Hochurg, Austria – 7 June 1863, Salzburg, Austria), was an Austrian primary school teacher and church organist in the village of Arnsdorf, who is best known for composing the music to Stille Nacht (Silent Night).
Gruber was born the son of linen weavers Josef and Maria Gruber. His given name was recorded in the baptismal record as "Conrad Xavier," but this was later changed to "Franz Xaver". The Hochburger schoolteacher, Andreas Peterlechner, gave him music lessons.
Gruber worked as a weaver until the age of 18, then trained to become a schoolteacher. He completed his music education studying with the church organist of Burghausen, Georg Hartdobler. In 1807 Gruber became schoolteacher in Arnsdorf. He also became the church caretaker and organist. In 1829 Gruber moved to Berndorf, and in later years to Hallein, Salzburg, where he was named choir director, singer and organist.
In 1816 he took on the additional responsibilities of organist and choirmaster at St Nicholas Church in the neighboring village of Oberndorf bei Salzburg.
Together with Joseph Mohr, a Catholic priest who wrote the original German lyrics, Gruber composed the music for the Christmas carol Silent Night. On Christmas Eve of 1818, Mohr, an assistant pastor at St Nicholas, showed Gruber a six-stanza poem he had written in 1816. He asked Gruber to set the poem to music. The church organ had broken down so Gruber produced a melody with guitar arrangement for the poem. The two men sang Stille Nacht for the first time at Christmas Mass in St Nicholas Church while Mohr played guitar and the choir repeated the last two lines of each verse.
In later years, Gruber composed additional arrangements of the carol for organ and for organ with orchestra, as well as scores of other carols and masses, many of which are still in print and sung today in Austrian churches.
Works for Winds
- All is Calm (arr. Smith) (2002)
- Fantasia on Silent Night (arr. Bond) (1818/2011)
- Season of Peace (arr. Milford) (2014)
- Silent Night (arr. O'Bryant) (1818)
- Silent Night (arr. Clark) (1818/2001)
- Silent Night (arr. Dawson) (1818/1992)
- Silent Night (arr. Marlatt) (1818/2014)
- Silent Night (arr. Swearingen) (1818/2008)
- Stille Nacht (arr. Davis and Longfield) (1818/1987?)
- Stille Nacht (arr. Davis and Vinson) (1818/1985)
- Winter's Night, A (arr. Kirby) (1818/2011)
- Franz Xaver Gruber, Wikipedia
- Heritage Encyclopedia of Band Music. "Franz Gruber." Accessed 3 December 2014.