Henry Clay Work (1 October 1832, Middletown, Connecticut – 8 June 1884, Hartford, Connecticut) was an American composer.
Work's father opposed slavery, and Work was himself an active abolitionist and Union supporter. His family's home became a stop on the Underground Railroad, assisting runaway slaves to freedom in Canada, for which his father was once imprisoned.
Work was self-taught in music. By the time he was 23, he worked as a printer in Chicago, specializing in setting musical type. He allegedly composed in his head as he worked, without a piano, using the noise of the machinery as an inspiration. His first published song was We Are Coming, Sister Mary, which eventually became a staple in Christy's Minstrels shows.
Work produced much of his best material during the Civil War. In 1862 he published Kingdom Coming using his own lyrics based upon snippets of Negro speech he had heard. This use of slave dialect (Irish too was a favorite) tended to limit the appeal of Work's works and make them frowned upon today. 1862 also saw his novelty song "Grafted Into the Army", followed in 1863 by Babylon is Fallen ("Don't you see the black clouds risin' ober yonder"), The Song of a Thousand Years, and God Save the Nation. His 1864 effort Wake Nicodemus was popular in minstrel shows.
In 1865 he wrote his greatest hit, Marching Through Georgia, inspired by Sherman's march to the sea at the end of the previous year. Thanks to its lively melody, the song was immensely popular, its million sheet-music sales being unprecedented. It is a cheerful marching song and has since been pressed into service many times, including by Princeton University as a football fight song. Timothy Shay Arthur's play Ten Nights in a Barroom had Work's 1864 Come Home, Father, a dirgesome song bemoaning the demon drink: too mawkish for modern tastes, but always sung at temperance meetings.
Settling into sentimental balladry, Work had significant post-Civil War success with the The Lost Letter, and The Ship That Never Returned -- a tune reused in the Wreck of the Old 97 and MTA. A massive hit was My Grandfather's Clock, published in 1876, which was introduced by Sam Lucas in Hartford, Connecticut, and again secured more than a million sales of the sheet music, along with popularizing the phrase grandfather clock to describe a longcase clock.
Henry Clay Work was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. He was a distant cousin to Frances Work, a great-grandmother of Diana, Princess of Wales.
Works for Winds
- Grandfather's Clock
- Kingdom Coming
- Marching Through Georgia (arr. Sousa and Brion) (1865/1891/2013)
- A Portrait of Henry C. Work (arr. Wada) (2018)
- Wake Me Up for the Great Jubilee
- Henry Clay Work, Wikipedia Accessed 7 December 2016
- Heritage Encyclopedia of Band Music. "Henry Clay Work." Accessed 7 December 2016